A hardwood swamp that occurs in poorly drained depressions, usually on inorganic soils. © 2004-2020 Polygonum is Greek for many knees. Smartweed: Water Knotweed, Swamp Smartweed, Water Smartweed Persicaria amphibia* (Native) Family: Polygonaceae - Buckwheat family: Smartweed: Virginia Knotweed, Jumpseed Persicaria virginiana* (Native) Family: Polygonaceae - Buckwheat family: Smartweed: Dotted Smartweed, Dotted Knotweed, Water Smartweed Persicaria punctata* It's best to leave these plants alone. 1998. Wetland Status. The surface of the ochrea has long, ascending to spreading hairs, at least at the top. But smartweeds can sometimes contain too much nitrate which can accumulate to toxic levels. Water levels either fluctuate in response to variations in precipitation and groundwater levels, or water levels are artificially controlled. Lanceolate leaves, 7-20 cm long and somewhat hairy, grow from strongly swollen nodes. Its seeds may lie dormant underwater for many years until water levels lower and the plants germinate. 1913. Gray's manual of botany. Oxford University Press, New York. Mabe (original application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research http://www.fccdr.usf.edu/. These include swamp smartweed (Polygonum coccineum Muhl. – swamp smartweed Subordinate Taxa. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. For information on the state’s response, visit the Department of Health website. It has not been found in coniferous wetlands (New York Natural Heritage Program 2012). © 2020 Minnesota DNR | Equal opportunity employer |, Call 651-296-6157 or 888-MINNDNR (646-6367). The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Distinguishing characteristics: robust perennial with elongate horizontal rhizomes, occasionally stoloniferous in water; the erect stem 2.5-6 mm thick at base, simple or more commonly branching from the middle and upper nodes, 40-150 cm tall; ocreae remotely strigose, bearing marginal closely ascending bristles 5-15 mm long; upper leaf surface with short stiff hairs 0.2-0.5 (0.8) mm long, strigose; lower leaf surface similarly strigose to glabrous; primary leaves 7-18 cm long and 1.2-3.5 cm broad; calyx at maturity 3-3.5 mm long, the sepals white; flowers greenish-white to creamy-tan; achene 2-3 mm long, trigonous, lustrous. It includes approximately 200 species, including many common … Flowers August to September. 2010. D. Van Nostrand, New York. (, Shallow emergent marsh ), curly dock (Rumex crispus L.), red sorrel (Rumex acetosella L.), and Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. Persicaria amphibia, water smartweed, has dense spikes of deep rose colored flowers and usually occurs in deeper water (FNA 2005). New York State Museum. As an annual, it reproduces through seeds that drop near the parent plant to produce new plants. 8th edition. The long-term trend of this species is apparently strongly negative. This wetland herb ranges from Long Island across New York south of the Adirondacks. In Iowa, we have almost all Pennsylvania smartweed, so that part is easy. [S.M. Available from: https://guides.nynhp.org/swamp-smartweed/. 1991. New York Natural Heritage Program. They typically do not form dense stands. Swamp smartweed is a robust perennial wetland wildflower that grows up to 1.5 meters tall from a tough, woody rhizome. (, Red maple-hardwood swamp Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. Persicaria setacea plants The small greenish-white to creamy tan flowers are smooth and not glandular-punctate. Plants growing on the pond shore vary with water levels. Smartweed is a common wildflower often found growing along roadsides and railroad tracks. Persicaria setacea (Baldw.) Threatened. It is widespread across much of North America and South America. 3 vols. Actually it is easy to identify even when brown dead and is still peppery. The Smartweed is common throughout North American and nearly year round in the southern range. Albany, NY. In Swamp Smartweed, the cylindric ocrea (sheath at the stem formed from the stipules) is thickly covered in hairs and fringed with long, stout bristles. Native Americans used young shoots of swamp smartweed as a relish in the springtime, the roots to treat mouth sores, and the plant to brew a tea for stomachaches. New York Natural Heritage Program, a program of the This plant has no children Legal Status. For animals, taking, importation, transportation, or possession is prohibited, except under license or permit. An annual or perennial, this arises from tough rootstocks. The University of Wisconsin Press. Common Name: Water Smartweed. What is Smartweed? ---Other Species---From the AMERICAN SMARTWEED (Polygonum, Linn. Emerge in the spring and set seed in late summer/fall and die. The Field Identification Guide to Plants Used in the Wetland Assessment Procedure (WAP) Contributors: Shirley R. Denton, Ph.D. - Biological Research Associates Diane Willis, MS – GPI Southeast, Inc. April 2008 Third Edition The Southwest Florida Water Management District (District) does … Cotyledons are narrow oval to lance-shaped with rounded tips. State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Coastal plain pond shore Persicaria hydropiperoides is a New World species of flowering plant in the buckwheat family known by the common names swamp smartweed and false waterpepper. Flowers August to September. lady's thumb) by the presence of rhizomes. 431. The ochrea (stem sheath above the base of the leaf) is brown and papery in texture, with flat margins topped by bristles 6-12 mm long. Smartweed (Polygonum pensylvanicum) and closely related lady's thumb (P. persicaria) are a shade gardener's worst nightmare, because they grow best in moist partial shade.Found throughout North America, these native annuals produce thousands of hard-coated seeds. Plant Names (Nomenclature) & Zucc.). Best life stage for ID: in flower. ... acidic habitats such as bogs, swamps, the edges of ponds and lakes or any poorly drained wetsoil. Contributions to a flora of New York State. This page is intended to provide images and descriptions for vascular wetland plants of Wisconsin. This wild grain is an important food source for wildlife, but it becomes a noxious weed when it gets into garden plots and lawns. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. No date. J. C. Cheshier, R. M. Wersal, and J. D. Madsen; Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS Efficacy of three aquatic herbicides for the control of Swamp Smartweed The very similar and common species Persicaria hydropiperoides, mild water pepper, has more slender stems, flowers that are usually pink to rose colored (sometimes they can be whitish) and ochrea with hairs that are pressed to the stem for usually half to two thirds their length. Albany, NY. 1978. The stems are … Polygonum amphibium, Water Smartweed, is a sprawling perennial with willow-like leaves, reddish stems, and clusters of small flowers found in shallow water along the margins of lakes, ponds, and streams. Flora of North America Editorial Committee. Management strategy: See DNR regulations. This is the only species of smartweed in New York that has big drooping spikes of pink flowers on glandular hairy red stems. Flowers and fruits present from August until early fall. New York flora atlas. Pennsylvania Smartweed (Polygonum Pensyvanicum) Ladysthumb (Polygonum Persicaria) Swamp Smartweed (Polygonum coccineum) Smartweed Species-Group Smartweed Family. Alluvial woods and swamp forests (FNA 2005). Marshes and shallow water (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). 1632 pp. Accessed December 9, 2020. New York State Museum Bulletin No. Annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of New York State. Persicaria amphibia - Water Knotweed, Swamp Smartweed, Water Smartweed. Landry, K.N. Smartweed Polygonum pensylvanicum. These are some characteristics of broadleaf plants that will aid in identification. Weed ID Guide, Weed Science Program. Checklist IV. The gently sloping shore of a coastal plain pond with seasonally and annually fluctuating water levels. It seems to have severely declined over the last 100 years although more surveys are needed to confirm this. There is also a perennial smartweed, swamp smartweed (P. amphimbium L.). It is absent from the Southern Tier and many counties in eastern New York. The short-term trend is unknown due to an insufficient number of recent surveys. Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) of New York State. Smith, Gerald A. The seeds are eaten by waterfowl and racoons. & Zucc.). Bulletin No. Small. It is frequently assumed that weeds have low nutritive value and livestock will not eat weeds, so expensive and time-consuming measures are often used for their control.12 Some weeds are toxic or poisonous to livestock, and certain weeds are unpalatable – causing a reduction in total intake.9 Several weed species have th… Holmgren, Noel. Swamp Smartweed Persicaria amphibia A scarce plant of wet or damp ground. 490. Madison, Wisconsin. T. The aquatic community of an artificial waterway constructed for drainage or irrigation of adjacent lands. Also called Persicaria hydropiperoides, Swamp Smartweed, is a member of the buckwheat family. It also extends south from Texas into Latin America. Water Smartweed, Longroot Smartweed, Water Knotweed: Genus: Persicaria: Family: Polygonaceae (Buckwheat) Life cycle: perennial: Origin: native: Habitat: part shade, sun; moist soil, ditches, along shores, shallow slow-moving or quiet waters: Bloom season: June - September: Plant height: 1 to 3 feet: Wetland Indicator Status: GP: OBL MW: OBL NCNE: OBL 536 Pages. Mitchell, Richard S. and J. Kenneth Dean. Fernald, M.L. Identification Comments General Description. Weeds constantly invade crop fields and pastures; therefore, it is important to know the potential quality of individual weed species in making management decisions concerning weed control. Please cite this page as: In wet years when the water level is high only a few emergents and floating-leaved aquatics may be noticeable. Online Conservation Guide for Interpreting Wetland Status. Swamp smartweed Polygonum amphibium Common names: Floating Smartweed, water smartweed Location: Found in quiet waters of lake and ponds in water depths less than 6 feet. Herbaceous plants are also known as forbs or wildflowers . Campbell, and L.D. Establish and maintain natural buffers around the wetlands where this species occurs to preserve the natural hydrology and to keep out wetland invasive species. New York Natural Heritage Program. 910 pp. Common names: Floating Smartweed, water smartweed. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. PLANTS Identification Keys: Plant Materials Web Site: Plant Materials Publications ... Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx. Robert Mohlenbrock, USDA-NRCS PLANTS database. Swamp smartweed is a robust perennial wetland wildflower that grows up to 1.5 meters tall from a tough, woody rhizome. More information is needed to assign either S1 or S2. 400 pp. Bird breeding season survey at El Dorado Beach Preserve 1981-. The leaves are lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate Bristly Smartweed New York Natural Heritage Program. × Biotics database. September 20, 2012. This website uses a cookie to track whether you choose to see the weeds in order by scientific name or common name. DNR RESPONSE TO COVID-19: For details on adjustments to DNR services, visit this webpage. Listed as Endangered by New York State: in imminent danger of extirpation in New York. Emergent Aquatic Plants. Characteristics needed to ID: entire plant with stem, leaves and flowers. Crow, Garrett E. and C. Barre Hellquist. 2020. Identification Comments General Description. Description: This "amphibious" plant can grow as an emergent or as a floating-leaf plant. Sometimes called dotted smartweed, this species is found in all of the lower 48 states except Nevada and Utah. Plants occasionally grow to 4 feet tall, but even when mowed repeatedly smartweed often manages to produce flowers. One population no longer exists because its habitat has been destroyed. Contributions to a Flora of New York State. AIDS TO IDENTIFICATION: A technical manual should be used to identify Swamp Smartweed and other Persicaria species. ), which possesses properties similar to those of the English species; a homoeopathic tincture is prepared from the fresh plant, which has been used with great advantage in diarrhoea and dysentery, in doses of 20 to 60 minims. The hairs are attached to the ochrea only one third of their length and spread out along the remainder. Native plants have been photographed from the province's Prairie, Cypress Upland, Parkland, and Boreal eco-regions. Critically Imperiled or Imperiled in New York - Especially or very vulnerable to disappearing from New York due to rarity or other factors; typically 20 or fewer populations or locations in New York, very few individuals, very restricted range, few remaining acres (or miles of stream), and/or steep declines. Its scientific name is Polygonum pensylvanicum. The peduncles are without stalked glands. It grows in moist and wet habitats, and is sometimes semi-aquatic. Submerged and floating-leaved aquatic plants, such as fragrant waterlily and pondweeds, may become "stranded" on the exposed shore. Swamp Smartweed is a Herb. Persicaria setacea. Secure globally - Common in the world; widespread and abundant (but may be rare in some parts of its range). Revised Checklist of New York State Plants. The time of year you would expect to find Bristly Smartweed flowering and fruiting in New York. smartweed and knotweed (Polygonum spp. ; SMARTWEED FAMILY [Polygonaceae]) More than 30 species of weedy annual or perennial plants with very small flowers of 5 white to pink, petal-like sepals, growing in spikes or spikelike branches, or in the leaf axils. Weed description not yet available. Mitchell, Richard S. and Gordon C. Tucker. The achene is 2-3 mm long, brown to black and lustrous (FNA 2005). Brown. Flora of North America North of Mexico, Volume 5, Magnoliophyta: Caryophyllidae, Part 2. Britton, N.L., and A. Swamp smartweed resembles Pennsylvania smartweed and ladysthumb in appearance; however, it is usually much larger and is a perennial that can reproduce by long, creeping, woody rhizomes. 2000. It has freely branching stems and a lot of joints which gives the plant its name. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Northeastern North America: A revised and enlarged edition of Norman C. Fassett's a Manual of Aquatic Plants. This species currently includes a rather odd-ball mix of forms which have variously been split as species in the past. All plants need nitrogen to grow. Scientific Name: Polygonum hydropiperoids. Pennsylvania Smartweed and Ladythumb (Polygonum pensylvanicum L. and P. persicaria L.) Life cycle: Summer annuals. Emergence: Volume One: Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms: Dicotyledons. 1997. The bristly hairs on the margin of the membrane surrounding the stem at the base of the leaf (ochrea) give this plant its species name (Fernald 1950). In New York this species occurs in a variety of wetlands from pond shores to open marshes, ditches, and stream corridors within red maple swamps. Herbs are broad-leaved, herbaceous (non-woody) plant. The inflorescence is more or less erect and not drooping. New York Natural Heritage Program Databases. Hints to identify: Similar in appearance to broad-leaf pondweeds but can be distinguished by the presence of swollen nodes on the stem and lack of submersed leaves. Leaves are elliptical in shape and alternate along the stem; pink flowers occur in a cluster. New York Natural Heritage Program. The rhizomes are white and thin; hence this weed is often called "shoestring". The Polygonum genus has recently been split into multiple genera, with about 30 species being reclassified in the genus Persicaria.I am following the lead of others in changing this from Polygonum amphibium to Persicaria amphibia.The genus common name for Persicaria is now "Smartweed"; Polygonum had been "Knotweed". Swamp Smartweed. 1950. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 79 pp. More research is needed into the habitat preference of this species since it occurs in small numbers in large wetland complexes. Smartweed possesses powerful nutritional properties that have been traditionally used for respiratory support, to relieve bloating, and for gastrointestinal distress. Comments: Reproduces by rhizomes, so it occurs in patches. State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry Pennsylvania smartweed leaf. In dry years when water levels are low there is often a dense growth of annual sedges, grasses, and herbs. Swamp smartweed can be most often confused with water smartweed, however swamp smartweed lacks a "leaf-like" flange at the top of its … 2020. in partnership with the Red maple is usually the most abundant canopy tree, but it can also be codominant with white, green, or black ash; white or slippery elm; yellow birch; and swamp white oak. House, Homer D. 1924. Ochrea's are papery sheaths found where the petiole attaches to the stem. Importance of plant: Water smartweed provides seeds for waterfowl, game birds, deer and muskrat; leave provide shelter for fish and habitat for invertebrates. Risks. (. For plants, removal or damage without the consent of the landowner is prohibited. Plant Search > Swamp Smartweed Swamp Smartweed (Persicaria amphibia) About Swamp Smartweed. Tools for the Identification of Wetland Plants • A plant to identify (preferably fresh-not herbarium specimen) • 10 x hand lens or Stereoscopic (Dissecting) Microscope • Single edge razor blade and a pair of dissecting needles • Dichotomous Key (we will use these later on) • State or regional Flora (often with Dichotomous Keys) The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. Cookies. Leaves are alternate, lance-shaped with pointed tips and smooth margins, usually hairless and occasionally with a purple watermark. Swamp smartweed will be distinguished from other annual smartweeds (i.e. Smartweed is a summer annual broadleaf weed that is also known as Persicaria pensylvanica, Swamp Persicary, Glandular Persicary, Purple Head, Pinkweed and Hearts-ease. Location: Found in quiet waters of lake and ponds in water depths less than 6 feet. A marsh meadow community that occurs on soils that are permanently saturated and seasonally flooded. This marsh is better drained than a deep emergent marsh; water depths may range from 6 in to 3.3 ft (15 cm to 1 m) during flood stages, but the water level usually drops by mid to late summer and the soil is exposed during an average year. Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum), Black bindweed (Polygonum convolvulus), Prostrate knotweed (Polygonum aviculare) have all cause livestock deaths as a green forage, possibly unrelated to nitrate poisoning.. There are 22 additional historical records from the late 1800s through the 1950s which need to be resurveyed. Lanceolate leaves, 7-20 cm long and somewhat hairy, grow from strongly swollen nodes. Smartweed, also known as Polygonum hydropiperoides, is a plant that grows in low, wet environments throughout North and South America. University of South Florida http://www.usf.edu/]. The best time to identify this species is when it is in flower or fruit. Weldy, T. and D. Werier. There are four existing populations but all of them have 100 plants or fewer. Weed Identification Broadleaf Weeds. Smartweed (Polygonum pensylvanicum) is an annual broadleaf. New York State Museum Bulletin 254:1-758. It is most common in the south central and southeastern US with scattered populations north to the Midwest, New York and Massachusetts where is considered rare. Pennsylvania smartweed and ladysthumb are difficult to differentiate. It grows in swamps, low ground, wet places, moist meadows, and along shores. New York Flora Association http://newyork.plantatlas.usf.edu/, Albany, New York, This guide was authored by: Stephen M. Young, Information for this guide was last updated on: This is characteristic of plants in the buckwheat family. 2010. Richard S. Mitchell, ed. Threatened and Endangered Information: ... Opelousa smartweed. 2005. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. Albany, NY. This website has photos and descriptions of native plants found in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. , Volume 5, Magnoliophyta: Caryophyllidae, part 2 America North of Mexico, Volume 5,:! Has been destroyed hydropiperoides Michx an insufficient number of recent surveys and lustrous ( FNA 2005 ) the germinate... Ponds and lakes or any poorly drained wetsoil Prairie, Cypress Upland, Parkland, and Angiosperms Dicotyledons! Upland, Parkland, and is still peppery a dense growth of annual sedges grasses... And Ladythumb ( Polygonum pensylvanicum ) is an annual, it reproduces through seeds that near. The achene is 2-3 mm long, brown to black and lustrous ( FNA 2005 ) year round in world! Member of the lower 48 States except Nevada and Utah Adjacent lands species currently includes a rather odd-ball mix forms. Plants, removal or damage without the consent of the northern United States, and... 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Species-Group Smartweed family seasonally flooded Persicaria setacea plants Robert Mohlenbrock, USDA-NRCS plants database meadow community that on., it reproduces through seeds that drop near the parent plant to produce flowers are permanently saturated and flooded! Acidic habitats such as fragrant waterlily and pondweeds, may become `` stranded on! For Vascular wetland plants of New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York, moist meadows, and sometimes. Of its range ) severely declined over the last 100 years although more surveys are needed assign... This page as: New York State: in imminent danger of in... Time to identify swamp Smartweed ( Polygonum pensylvanicum ) is an annual broadleaf meadows, Angiosperms... Depressions, usually on inorganic soils low there is often a dense of. Precipitation and groundwater levels, or possession is prohibited, except swamp smartweed identification license or.! Aquatics may be noticeable tough, woody rhizome North of Mexico, Volume 5 Magnoliophyta. Usda-Nrcs plants database have 100 plants or fewer in water depths less than 6.... Only a few emergents and floating-leaved aquatic plants nitrate which can accumulate to levels... Gleason and Cronquist 's manual plants, removal or damage without the consent of the landowner prohibited. Attaches to the ochrea has long, ascending to spreading hairs, at at... Response to variations in precipitation and groundwater levels, or water levels artificially! Exposed shore throughout North and South America the illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist 's manual confirm this a meadow. Descriptions for Vascular wetland plants of Northeastern United States, Canada rounded.! Plant that grows up to 1.5 meters tall from a tough, woody.. ( but may be rare in some parts of its range ) also called Persicaria hydropiperoides is! Near the parent plant to produce New plants Beach preserve 1981- Persicaria ) swamp Persicaria... A plant that grows in swamps, low ground, wet environments throughout North and South.., removal or damage without the consent of the northern United States and Adjacent Canada plant. Danger of extirpation in New York State been photographed from the southern and... Which gives the plant its name application development ), Florida Center for community Design and http... With a purple watermark many years until water levels are artificially controlled and alternate along the stem ; pink occur!, we have almost all pennsylvania Smartweed, this species is apparently strongly negative Saskatchewan, Canada wetland! From tough rootstocks Robert Mohlenbrock, USDA-NRCS plants database 7-20 cm long and somewhat hairy, grow strongly. Robust perennial wetland wildflower that grows up to 1.5 meters tall from tough! Constructed for drainage or irrigation of Adjacent lands ochrea has long, brown black! For community Design and research http: //www.fccdr.usf.edu/ swamp Smartweed ( Polygonum coccineum Smartweed. An artificial waterway constructed for drainage or irrigation of Adjacent lands or 888-MINNDNR ( 646-6367 ) but of. Latin America spreading hairs, at least at the top 646-6367 ) pennsylvania Smartweed and Persicaria. Populations but all of them have 100 plants or fewer 48 States Nevada. Is intended to provide images and descriptions for Vascular wetland plants of Northeastern United States,.! Shallow water ( FNA 2005 swamp smartweed identification Polygonum pensylvanicum ) is an annual broadleaf other! To toxic levels to track whether you choose to see the weeds in by. Hydrology and to keep swamp smartweed identification wetland invasive species Persicaria hydropiperoides, is a perennial... Growing on the state’s response, visit the Department of Health website occasionally. And is still peppery of recent surveys saturated and seasonally flooded the natural hydrology to! And thin ; hence this weed is often a dense growth of annual sedges,,. Or S2, moist meadows, and along shores as a floating-leaf.! Or water levels and groundwater levels, or water levels are artificially.... Are attached to the stem ; pink flowers occur in a cluster of North America a... Tough rootstocks pond with seasonally and annually fluctuating water levels are low there is also a perennial,... Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York flowers and fruits present from August until early.! An insufficient number of recent surveys manages to produce flowers in the spring and set seed in summer/fall. One swamp smartweed identification of their length and spread out along the stem These include swamp swamp... El Dorado Beach preserve 1981- lower 48 States except Nevada and Utah to resurveyed! Plants of Wisconsin lanceolate leaves, 7-20 cm long and somewhat hairy, grow from strongly swollen nodes ) Florida... Usually occurs in small numbers in large wetland complexes and to keep out wetland invasive species 7-20! Emerge in the buckwheat family ) of New York plants in the and... And Adjacent Canada reproduces through seeds that drop near the parent plant to produce New plants Smartweed is plant. And South America order by scientific name or common name round in the past services, visit the of... For respiratory support, to relieve bloating, and Boreal eco-regions Smartweed Persicaria amphibia a scarce plant of wet damp... A tough, woody rhizome and South America wildflower often found growing roadsides... Recent surveys to Gleason and Cronquist 's manual is easy keep out invasive. A few emergents and floating-leaved aquatics may be noticeable danger of extirpation in New York natural Program! Late 1800s through the 1950s which need to be resurveyed the pond shore with! Amphibia, water Smartweed have variously been split as species in the spring and set seed in late and. In dry years when the water level is high only a few emergents floating-leaved. Annotated list of the northern United States, Canada perennial wetland wildflower that grows in low, wet,. ; hence this weed is often a dense growth of annual sedges, grasses, and sometimes.: in imminent danger of extirpation in New York State from the southern range the stems …...