After the war, the War Department gathered more materials in the Philippines, Japan, and Korea. Over 6 million people attend a Mass in Manila, Philippines given by Pope Francis, who encouraged followers to protect the young and promote peace; 2014 Event. Toggle navigation. An outstanding collection of 12 historical essays published in 1971, 12 Events That Have Influenced Philippine History provides an easy and pleasurable rereading of Philippine history from the perspectives of 12 men and women of letters, all eminent literary personalities of that time. Personally, Philippine history is important to Filipinos because it is essentially a record of what we've done, as a country, in order to get to the present condition that we live in. The history of the Philippines is believed to have begun with the arrival of the first humans using rafts or boats at least 709,000 years ago as suggested by the discovery of Pleistocene stone tools and butchered animal remains associated with hominin activity. In retrospect, a lone vote did end up influencing China’s naval incursions in the disputed islands of the West Philippine Sea—and by that we meant the Philippine Senate’s 12-11 rejection against the treaty that would have extended the lease of the naval base in Subic to the US. Military coup. General Douglas MacArthur turned over the civilian government to Sergio Osmeña Sr.85. The Republic of the Philippines was named the Filipinas to honor King Philip the Second of Spain in 1543. Then take one section of Chapter 8 which talks about precolonial cultures and IN YOUR OWN WORDS, discuss its significance and use to our present-day ideas of culture, history, and identify. Jose Rizal Disliked The Chinese. The country’s premier state university was created by Act 1870.59. Manila was devastated after the war. Most of the stations were confiscated by the Japanese during the war. Cofradia de San Jose. The Filipino Nation led by President Joseph Ejercito Estrada joined the whole world in welcoming the new millennium. Signed in Mindanao between US Representative John C. Bates and the Filipino Muslim leaders Rajah Muda, Datu Calbi, Datu Joakanain and the Sulu Sultan, the agreement signified noninvolvement of the Muslims in the Filipino-American War.38. The President’s plane crashed in Manunggal, Cebu. Construction of Manila-Dagupan Railroad. ", 100 significant events in Philippine history, How To Grow Table Salt or Sodium Chloride Crystals, list of physical fitness components and examples, The 12 Most Dominant Ethnic Groups in the Philippines, Ipagpatuloy ang pagbabasa ng susunod na bahagi. The US Congress signed the Cooper Bill that provided for the establishment of a civil government in the Philippines.52. Most of the historical movies below are depicting the Spanish Era(more than 300 years of governance). Telephone system. Establishment of the Congress of Labor Organizations (CLO). British invasion of Manila. Readings in Philippine History Meaning and relevance of history, types of sources History-Is the analysis and interpretation of the human past enabling us to study continuity and changes that are taking place over time.-It is an act of both investigation and imagination that seeks how people have changed over time.-Is a means to understand the past and present. Exile of Dr. Jose Rizal. Acta de Tejeros. Mid-14th century. Over 6 million people attend a Mass in Manila, Philippines given by Pope Francis, who encouraged followers to protect the young and promote peace, Benigno Aquino III, President of the Philippines, considers the territorial claims China has made in the South China Sea comparable to the Nazi Germany invasion of Czechoslovakia, The death toll from Typhoon Haiyan, which struck the Philippines, is confirmed to be over 5,700 people; the number is expected to increase, The 150th anniversary of Andres Bonifacio, a national hero and revolutionary leader in the Philippines, is commemorated, Amidst criticism for its lack of help in the wake of Typhoon Haiyan, China's 'Peace Ark', a 14,000-ton navy hospital ship, is sent to the Philippines to help its relief efforts'; the country also sent an emergency medical team and a disaster relief team from the Chinese Red Cross, The Philippines receives a $500 million emergency loan from the World Bank to help the country recover and rebuild in the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan, The Philippines' central province of Leyte suffers a loss of potentially 10,000 people when Typhoon Haiyan devastated portions of Southeast Asia on November 8, 2013; it is the deadliest typhoon ever recorded, Two million people lose power and five people are killed when Typhoon Nari strikes the Philippines, The Northern Philippines are hit by Typhoon Usagi, causing flooding, landslides and disruptions in power, communication and transportation, In Cebu, Philippines, 200 are missing and at least 26 are dead after a cargo ship and the ferry MV Thomas Aquinas collide, The defense ministry of China accuses the United States of increasing tensions in the Asia-Pacific region by increasing its military presence and supporting Vietnam, Japan and the Philippines in long-term territorial disputes with the country, The toll of those afflicted by Typhoon Bopha in the southern Philippines rises to 179,000 left homeless after the storm passed, Typhoon Bopha, striking New Bataan and parts of the southern Philippines, leads to the deaths of 283 people with 339 injured, over 300 missing, and over 87,000 evacuated from the area, Vietnam accuses China of cutting seismic survey cables from territorial waters in the South China, disputed by Vietnam, the Philippines Malaysia, Taiwan, and Brunei, Standard and Poor's credit rating agency increases the rating of the Philippines to BB+, The Philippines lends $1 billion to the International Monetary Fund, In the Philippines, four new species of freshwater crab are discovered; the crab are bright purple in color, The death toll from Tropical Storm Washi in the Philippines reaches 1,002, and is expected to rise, In the Philippines, flash floods from Tropical Storm Washi killed at least 400 people, with more missing, Typhoon Nesat causes 43 deaths in the Philippines; forecasts predict Typhoon Nalgae will cause further flooding problems, A terrorist-related travel warning for the Philippines is issued by the United States, The Mount Bulusan volcano in the Philippines erupts again, spreading an ash plume up to 700 meters above the volcano's crater, In Hong Kong, 80,000 people rally in response to last week's fatal tourist coast hijacking hostage crisis in the Philippines, The 15th President of the Philippines, Benigno Aquino III, is sworn in, as is the 15th Vice President of the Philippines, Jejomar Binay, Air Philippines flight 541 crashes into a hill near Davao, killing 131, Bus crashes in Luzon Philippines, 29 killed, 6.7-8.1 earthquake strikes Philippines, killing 45, Pinatubo volcano in Philippines erupts, kills at least 14, C-130 flies into a Philippines hill and explodes, 16 killed, "Les Miserables," opens at Meralco Theatre, Philippines, Boat sinks at Bocaue Philippines, 325 die, Alfredo de Leon, leader (Philippines Red Scorpio Gang), killed, Fidel Ramos installed as president of Philippines, Underwater volcano, Mount Didicas, erupts in Philippines, Philippines volcano Mount Pinatubo erupts, Mount Pinatubo volcano on Philippines erupts, Mount Pinatubo (Philippines) erupts for 1st time in 600 years, 400 die in a, 7.7, earthquake in Philippines, Ferdinand E Marcos, president of Philippines (1965-86), dies at 72, Corazon Aquino is elected president in the Philippines, Philippines constitution goes into effect, Rolando Olalia, Philippines worker's union leader, murdered, Ex-minister Arturo Tolentino failed coup in Philippines, Corazon Aquino becomes president of Philippines, Marcos flees, Ferdinand Marcos wins rigged Philippines presidential election, Benigno S Aquino, Jr., Philippines opposition leader, killed at 50, An earthquake and tidal wave in the Philippines kills up to 8,000, Last Japanese soldier, a guerrilla operating in Philippines, surrenders, 29 years after World War II ended, Philippines President Ferdinand Marcos declares martial law, President Marcos ends emergency crisis in Philippines, Marcos declares martial law in Philippines, Lea Salonga, Philippines, singer and actress, Miss Siagon, Pope Paul VI wounded in chest during a visit to Philippines by a dagger-wielding Bolivian painter disguised as a priest, Communist New People's Army found in Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand meet to form Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), Al Carlay, born in Manila, Philippines, U.S. fencer-foil 1996 Olympics, 2 homemade buses collided on a mountain road in Terpate, Philippines plunging off a cliff, killing 84, injuring 140, Beatles attacked in Philippines after insulting Imelda Marcos, Ferdinand Marcos elected president of Philippines, Lava flows kill at least 350 (Taal Philippines), Volcano explodes on Luzon Philippines; 500 killed, Lou Diamond Phillips, Philippines, actor, La Bamba, Stand and Deliver, Cecile Licad, Manila, Philippines, pianist, Leventritt Award-1981, Elpidio Quirino, president of Philippines (1949-53), dies at 65, Billy Hinsche, born in Manila, Philippines, William 'Billy' Hinsche, American musician, rocker, member of Dino, Desi, and Billy singing group, toured with The Beach Boys, Superheated gases roll down Mount Catarman (Philippines), kills 500, U.S. and Philippines sign mutual defense pact, Philippines president Quirino ends emergency crisis, Susan Penhaligon, born in Manilla, Philippines, actress, Dracula, Nasty Habits, Japanese forces in Philippines surrender to Allies, Philippines Sea: U.S. cruiser Indianapolis torpedoed/sinks, 880 die, U.S. soldiers led by General Douglas MacArthur invades Philippines, Destroyers "Hull," "Spence" and "Monaghan" sink in typhoon (Philippines), U.S. destroyers sink in storm off Philippines, 790 killed, U.S. aircraft carrier Princeton sinks at Philippines, U.S. 6th army lands on Leyte, Philippines, U.S. forces under General Douglas MacArthur return to Philippines, Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina, President of Philippines (1935-42), dies at 65, U.S. attacks Japanese fleet in Philippines Sea, Battle of Philippines Sea, 300 Japanese aircraft shot down, Kim Fowley, Philippines/US rock vocalist/producer/songwriter, Corregidor and Philippines surrender to Japanese Armies, Japanese troops occupy Manila Philippines, Japans invasion leader lands on Luzon, Philippines, Japanese troops landed on northern Luzon in the Philippines, 1st U.S. WW II bombing mission in Far East, Luzon, Philippines, Lino Brocka, born in San Jose, Philippines, director, Macho Dancer, Jaguar, Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina chosen 1st president of Philippines, Plebiscite in Philippines ratifies independence agreement, World's largest pearl (6.4 kg) found at Palawan, Philippines, U.S. declares the Philippines to become independent in 1945, U.S. Congress accepts Philippines independence in 1945, Corazon Aquino, president of Philippines, 1986-92, U.S. Congress recognize independence Philippines, Imelda Marcos, politician/shoe collector/1st lady of Philippines, Philippines government asks U.S. to plebiscite for independence, Ferdinand Marcos, Philippines President, 1965-86, U.S. Congress accept Jones Act: Philippines independence, James D. Ramage, U.S. Lieutenant-Admiral, WW II - Palau, Guam, and Philippines, Brenda Marshall, Philippines, actress, Sea Hawk, Paris After Dark, 108 degrees F (42 degrees C), Tuguegarao, Philippines (Oceania record), 46" of rain (begining 7/14) falls in Baguio, Philippines, 46" of rain begins to fall in Baguio, Philippines, Diosdado Macapagal, Philippines president, 1961-65, Ramon Magsaysay, Philippines, statesman, U.S. Legion of Merit-1952, Jeno Takacs, born in Cinfalva, Hungary, composer, studied with Joseph Marx, Paul Weigarten, professor of piano, composition at University of Manila in the Philippines, gave concerts in China, Japan, Hong Kong, Revolt against U.S. occupation of Philippines, Spanish-American War ends; U.S. acquires Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam, U.S. fleet under commodore Dewey sails from Hong Kong to Philippines, Jose Mercado Rizal, anti-Spanish rule of Philippines proponent, dies, Manuel Roxas y Acuna, 1st president Philippines, Elpidio Quirino, president of Philippines, 1949-53, Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina, 1st president of Philippines, 1935-42, Philippines chases out foreigners; about 125 die, Volcano Mayon on Luzon Philippines erupts killing 1,200, Philippines close all non-catholic Chinese restaurants, Andres Malong, Philippines rebel leader, executed, Philippines: Andres Malongs rebels plunders Bagnotan, Chinese uprising on Philippines, Tondo/Quiapo massacre, Chinese uprising in Philippines fails after 23,000 killed, Olivier van Noorts ships reach Philippines, Bishop Domingo de Salazar of Manila suppresses the Philippines, 1st Spanish settlement in Philippines, Cebu City, forms, Ferdinand Magellan discovers the Philippines, Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan reaches Philippines. It published essays and articles in Spanish expressing the Filipino demands for reforms in the Philippines. 7. Many of its members were prosecuted after the war for the atrocities they committed against the people.83. Chapter 8 of Antonio de Morga's "Events of the Philippines Islands" with the Rizal annotation. Republic of Negros. The Katipuneros gathered in Pugad Lawin, tore their cedulas and declared war against Spain.28. Fall of Bataan. 1521 1521 1886 1901 1934 1946 Next: 1965-present About 25,000 B.C. On September 22, 1943, the Commonwealth government adopted the flag and the anthem as national symbols.44. They were followed by an influx from Malaysia. This is a definite indication that a tool-using species was present … 1953. End of the 20th Century and Millennium Watch. February 19, 1905. The collection also documents significant historic events related to the transition of U.S. occupation of the Philippines (1900-1947) to the country's independence, including Filipino military and government service under the U.S. in the two World Wars. This provided for the secession of hostilities between the two parties and the voluntary exile of revolutionary leaders in Hong Kong.34. About 180 Filipinos attacked 72 American soldiers and killed many of them. President Ramos and VP Estrada were sworn in by Chief Justice Andres Narvasa at the Luneta Grandstand. The list is constantly updated to incorporate the most recent events. Nursing in the Philippines has a deep and enigmatic history. June 30, 1998. New government under the Japanese. Jose Burgos Was Framed For The Cavite Mutiny. August 27, 1903. Scientific knowledge is observed in the way they plant their crops that provide them food, in taking care of animals to help them in their Worcester won the case and the newspaper was closed.60. Uprising of Leon Kilat in Cebu. This signaled the beginning of the Japanese Occupation in the Philippines.74. 2015 Event. Public education system. The Philippines joined the United Nations.86. Iglesia Evangelica Metodista en las Islas Filipinas. PRE-COLONIAL PERIOD Early Times – 1564 The first period of the Philippine literary history is the longest. Then take one section of Chapter 8 which talks about precolonial cultures and IN YOUR OWN WORDS, discuss its significance and use to our present-day ideas of culture, history, and identify. 1891. events, considerable efforts would be required to prepare the Philippines in dealing with the impacts of climate change on the different climate-sensitive sectors. It was a result of the disparagement and prejudice felt by nationalistic priests.53. 1542 - Spanish expedition commandeered by Ruy Lopez de Villalobos claims the islands for Spain; names them " Philippines " after Prince Philip, later King Philip II of Spain; the Philippines becomes part of Spanish … August 27, 1930. It was organized primarily to advance the political rights of Filipino women and later on developed into an organization of women leaders for national development. The first Filipino church independent of Rome to be established with Gregorio Aglipay as the first bishop. April 27, 1521.6. Used to guide the Commonwealth government, cut off during the Japanese period and was restored after the war until 1973, when President Marcos ratified a new one.72. August 28, 1987. September 28, 1890. Founded as a religious cult which attracted many members and alarmed the government. Fort San Pedro. This event is considered one of the tragedies of the Revolution.43. Marcos abolished the Congress and created the semiparliament Batasang Pambansa. Soon after, the Americans retaliated by killing every Filipino who refused to surrender and were capable of carrying arms, including 10-year-old boys. It should not be confused with History because history is the study of the past, the events that happened in the past. General Edward P. King surrendered to spare the lives of battle weary and outnumbered Filipino and American soldiers who were defending Bataan. History is not merely the records of past events: it is the record of what one’s age find worthy of note in another. In this wide-ranging cultural and political history of Filipinos and the Philippines, Vicente L. Rafael examines the period from the onset of U.S. colonialism in 1898 to the emergence of a Filipino diaspora in the 1990s. See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive. 20th Century. Tejeros Convention. December 3, 1942. This approach has given me a framework with which to design our Philippine history studies. General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed Philippine Independence in Kawit, Cavite. Hilario was not actually his middle name, but Gatmaytan. March 23, 1901. An illustration of a magnifying glass. The closure of the largest US military base outside of the US and the departure of its Navy had a direct profound effect on China. 1890. (PDF) PHILIPPINE HISTORY Pre Pre - -Colonial Period ... ... bleblebleah April 20, 1897. Japanese invasion. September 24, 1993. Antisedition Law. 449-476 (Article) Published by Ateneo de Manila University DOI: For additional information about this article Access provided by University of the Philippines (24 Aug 2018 07:04 GMT) Other lodges followed. Liberation of Manila. The Americans entered Manila and liberated many Filipino and American internees at the University of Santo Tomas. Philippines, island country of Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. 4.2 (3974 Votes) Educational Site, Historical Site, Architecture , Fort. Table of Contents. The records moved to Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri, before the National Archives brought them to Washington, DC. A History of Journalism in the Philippines: Historical Notes (11 of 11) by Alixander Haban Escote in History, August 28, 2008. Execution of Burgos, Gomes and Zamora. Rizal arrived in Dapitan to serve his exile. The collection also documents significant historic events related to the transition of U.S. occupation of the Philippines (1900-1947) to the country's independence, including Filipino military and government service under the U.S. in the two World Wars. This book is a critical historical resource for Philippine history that presents the events in the 15th-18th century as it happened and documented by the Spanish who first came to the islands. Cavite Mutiny. General Douglas MacArthur landed in Leyte Gulf with Sergio Osmeña Sr. and Carlos P. Romulo. 1832-41. This is a timeline of Philippine history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in the Philippines and their predecessor states. In a period of heavy struggle and conflict, Filipinos of different backgrounds united with a common goal: to resist colonialism. November 17, 1898. Creation of the University of the Philippines. The priests played significant roles in developing the country as a Spanish colony.10. Manila is the capital, but nearby Quezon City is the country’s most-populous city. The Reform the AFP Movement (RAM), led by Col. Gregorio Honasan, staged the coup, demanding the surrender of the Aquino government. October 31, 1919. An outstanding collection of 12 historical essays published in 1971, 12 Events That Have Influenced Philippine History provides an easy and pleasurable rereading of Philippine history from the perspectives of 12 men and women of letters, all eminent literary personalities of that time. The American naval fleets led by George Dewey fought against the Spanish fleet under General Patrocinio Montojo. June 5, 1899. March 1521. July 4, 1946. April 9, 1942. The Spanish government established this for business purposes. Symbolized the conversion of many Filipinos to Roman Catholicism.5. Various organizations operating in the Philippines created the earliest records in what became the Philippine Archives Collection. September 3, 1899. Purpose of this Book.—This book has been written for the young men and young women of the Philippines. April 2, 1898. Tagalog later became known as the Filipino language.77. The CLO, first called Committee of Labor Organizations, was a federation of labor organizations organized by former leaders of the Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon (Hukbalahap), which was forced to go underground when the government declared it illegal.84. This signaled the retaking of the Philippines from the Japanese soldiers. 6. They dominated Philippine commerce from then on.2. Leon Kilat (Pantaleon Villegas) led the uprising against the Spaniards in Cebu, which was suppressed after a week with the arrival of reinforcements from Iloilo and Manila. Shipbuilding. 10. Used by revolutionists and by American soldiers during the revolution. February 9, 1986. Pact of Biyak-na-Bato. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Landing of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi in Cebu. They were the first group of Protestant missionaries to arrive and established missions in the Philippines. History is not merely the records of past events: it is the record of what one’s age find worthy of note in another. 39, No. Aside from its beautiful places and scenic tourist spots, it is also rich in history and culture. 1935. Sergeant Lamadrid led artillery regiments and some naval crews in capturing the arsenal of Fort San Felipe in Cavite. 1565. August 23, 1892. The Population History of the Philippines: A Genetic Overview Frederick C. Delfin Philippine Studies: Historical and Ethnographic Viewpoints, Volume 63, Number 4, December 2015, pp. • Philippine Post Modern Art (1970 – 1980s) The support of the Philippine Government for the arts via the creation of the Cultural Center of the Philippines during 1969, gave a venue for all artist to experiment and explore different art medium tying closely to the Post Modern Art Period of the West with Pop Art, Installation Art, Performance Art, dominating the scene. The first battle between the Katipuneros and Spanish forces in San Juan, Rizal. Literary Compositions that Have Influenced the World. Governor Narciso Claveria y Zaldua issued a decree that provided for the use of Spanish surnames by Filipinos to facilitate census, tax collection and administration.15. Signed by the Spanish government and the Filipino revolutionary leaders. Thirty computer technicians of the Commission on Elections walked out of their jobs after they were ordered to cheat the election returns in favor of President Marcos.93. 1914. First court case of libel. Manila is the capital, but nearby Quezon City is the country’s most-populous city. The Philippine Commission passed Act 74 providing for the public education system, which includes the use of English as the medium of instruction, free primary education and a normal school for the training of teachers. The British invaded and occupied Manila until March 1764, when the Seven-Year War in Europe ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris. In a period of heavy struggle and conflict, Filipinos of different backgrounds united with a common goal: to resist colonialism. It served as a big source of revenue for the Spanish government until it was closed in 1882. Founding of La Solidaridad. This signaled America’s colonization of the Philippines.36. Under the revised curriculum of the Commission on Higher Education, college-level Philippine history will be taught using primary sources. Inauguration of Rizal Monument. #philippinehistory THE FIRST PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC Tho ugh short-lived, the First Philippine, nonetheless catapulted the Filipino nation onto the world’s consciousness carving not only a place among the family of nations but also a distinct niche as the first republic in Asia. Adaptation will be an integral part of our response to the threats of climate change. This historical site in the Philippines was made of wood, and immediately put up after the arrival of the Spanish explorer in order to keep the Muslim raiders away from the area. History of the Filipino People. Establishment of civil government. During the period, tobacco farms and cigarette plants in the country increased and employed many Filipinos as farmers and factory workers.14. Battle of Pinaglabanan. The bones show evidence of having been cut with stone tools. Also Read: 10 ‘What If’ Scenarios That Would Have Changed Philippine History Forever . July 17, 1892. Alto Broadcasting Network and DZXL-TV Channel 9. Two days after, President Marcos went on exile to Hawaii.94. 1, January-March 2015 October 16, 1907. June 4, 1565. Early 1600s. 9. Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. Andres Bonifacio, Ladislaw Diwa and Teodoro Plata composed the first triangle of the secret society.25. Fall of Manila. The senator was assassinated at the Manila International Airport, now named in his honor.92. This law, signed by Theodore Roosevelt, provided for the establishment of the transition period before America would eventually recognize Philippine Independence.70. Communist Party of the Philippines. This first labor federation in the country was established at Teatro Variedades in Sampaloc, Manila, with Isabelo de los Reyes as president and Hermenigildo Cruz as secretary. Its leaders are often wooed by politicians who are aware of the church’s tendency to vote by block.62. February 19, 1897. President Joseph Ejercito Estrada, best known as Erap, took his oath as the 13th President of the Philippines in Barasoain Church, Malolos, Bulacan.100. Summary: A chronology of key events in the history of the Philippines Stone tools were also found adjacent to the bones. Many Katipuneros were members of the Masonry.23. President Manuel L. Quezon proclaimed Tagalog as one of the official languages in the Philippines starting July 4, 1946. The historical origins of the Philippine economy: a survey of recent research of the Spanish colonial eraJosep M. Fradera THE HISTORICAL ORIGINS OF THE PHILIPPINE ECONOMY: A SURVEY OF RECENT RESEARCH OF THE SPANISH COLONIAL ERA B J M. F Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain This article surveys recent research of the Spanish colonial era in the Philippines since the late eighteenth century. Cry of Pugad Lawin. Jose Rizal Disliked The Chinese. 1987. There were other failed coup attempts by the RAM (one in 1986, three attempts in 1987), Nationalist Army of the Philippines (NAP) in 1986, and the combined forces of RAM and NAP on December 1, 1989.97. Philippines close all non-catholic Chinese restaurants; 1661 Death. La Independencia newspaper published Jose Palma’s poem. Bonifacio nullified the results of the elections during the Tejeros Convention. 1565. The hero contributed much to the development of Dapitan during his exile.26. But on the basis of what we now know we can make some generalizations and some hypotheses for future study. February 28, 1909. Death of President Ramon Magsaysay. Blood Compact. It focuses on how a certain historical text was written, who wrote it, what was the context of its publication, what historical method was employed, what sources were used … Andres Malong, Philippines rebel leader, executed; 1660 Event. Organized by Hermenigildo Cruz, the organization battled for an eight-hour working day, abolition of child labor, just labor standards for women and liability of capitalists.63. Part I: Magellan, Rizal, and Philippine independence by David Johnson and Shmuel Ross B.C. The Bible or the Sacred Writings 2. Establishment of Masonic Nilad Lodge or "Logia Central y Delegada." December 30, 1941. Makabayang Kalipunan ng mga Pilipino (Makapili). Jose Ma. 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