The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), a UK … And yet it would be insufficient to proceed on the basis of a juxtaposition of unrelated specific cases. Why Democrats Keep Losing Rural Counties Like Mine, Joe Biden’s Neera Tanden Pick Is Even Worse Than You Thought, The Supreme Court Wants to Revive a Doctrine That Would Paralyze Biden’s Administration, Comparing Biden's Administration Picks to Obama's Is Revealing, How to Celebrate Thanksgiving Without Erasing the Exploitation and Genocide of Native American People, Brazil Under Bolsonaro: Social Base, Agenda and Perspectives, Race, articulation and societies structured in dominance, Popular-democratic vs authoritarian populism: two ways of taking democracy seriously, Wir sollten uns nichts vormachen!» Interview über autoritäre Entwicklungen, die Krise der Demokratie und den Zusammenhang von kritischer Analyse und politischer Veränderung, www.zeitschrift-luxemburg.de/oh-gott-luxemburg-22014-zu-politischer-rel…, www.rosalux.de/publikation/id/39174/rechtspopulismus-radikale-rechte-fa…. 6. LuXemburg, 2014, no. Venezuela's Authoritarian President Maduro Continues Blockade Of U.S. Aid U.S. food and ... 2019 4:47 PM ET. 9. Armenia, Bahrain, Cambodia, China, Iran, Laos, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Vietnam, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Turkey, Authoritarian Countries in Asia: Armenia, Bahrain, Cambodia, China, Iran, Laos, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Vietnam, Authoritarian Countries in Europe: Azerbaijan, Belarus, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Turkey. Meanwhile, its alphabetical successor Norway steadily keeps up its high score streak, with 9.87 being the best example of a full democracy in 2019. To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added … According to a 2019 study by Sergei Guriev and Daniel Treisman, authoritarian regimes have over time become less reliant on violence and mass repression to maintain control. For investigation: who are the carriers, the social groups, and the class fractions of the new authoritarianism (both in the relevant countries and transnationally)? T he purpose of censorship and thought management differs from regime to regime. These forms can be differentiated according to the position of each country within the global structures of valorization, according to the developments of capital accumulation and/or the global obstacles to the valorization of capital—the respective position of a national economy (and its crisis) provides clues to specific causes and contexts for determinate forms of authoritarianism in the respective country and/or to a typology of forms of rule. Rebellious uprisings: The half-life of authoritarian regimes also depends, of course, on the intensity of the resistance to them, and the restructuring of emancipatory projects. All North American Authoritarian Countries: Cuba, Authoritarian Countries in South America: Venezuela. Candeias, Mario, “Gegenmittel gegen autoritären Neoliberalismus und Rechtspopulismus – Perspektiven einer verbindenden linken Partei”, in Rechtspopulismus in Europa. Yet each of these attempts met with obstacles posed by stable institutions of capital’s increasingly transnational reign. [2] E. Balibar and I. Wallerstein, Race, Nation, Class. Hence the struggle against (the freedom of) the press, the Enlightenment, and the academy (and academic freedom)—but also against an independent justice system, as expressing a codification of propositions claimed to be true. Our mission at Portside is to seek out and to provide information that empowers you -- that empowers the left. [Mario Candeias is the director of the Institute for Critical Social Analysis at the Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung. If it is true that the radical right and “racist ideology [are] essentially inter-class”—not only in the sense of relatively upwardly or downwardly mobile class segments, but rather in connection with “an active negation” of class solidarity [2]—then the radical right (or, e.g., the AfD in particular) can also be grasped as constituting an inter-class alliance: between downwardly mobile wage-labourers, segments of skilled labour who have moved into the petite bourgeoisie and are threatened with further decline (and who thus attempt to defend their private homes and level of consumption), upwardly mobile entrepreneurial individualists, middle-class business-owning families placed under pressure by globalization, industries (e.g. Every day we search hundreds of sources to connect you with the most interesting, striking and useful material. As the organic crisis of the old neoliberal project of globalization continues, nearly everywhere in Europe—but also in the US, Latin America, Asia, and Africa—we are seeing the rise of an authoritarian and radical right wing. According to Swedish research organization V-Dem, the number of democratic countries and regions stood at 87 in 2019, while the number of nondemocratic countries and regions came to 92. Let us not disempower ourselves through one-sided perspectives. [1] The great powers China and Russia constitute special cases, which cannot be dealt with here. Hence, too, the prevalence of anti-establishment discourses directed against the traditional bourgeois elites. Garcia, Ana, “Brazil Under Bolsonaro: Social Base, Agenda and Perspectives”, The Bullet, 15 April 2019, . We should compose many such new internationals. It functions as a sort of short-circuit between bourgeois forces and the subalterns”. [4] This kind of mobilization is linked with a kind of imaginary empowerment of the subalterns. 3. Authoritarian has been adopted by a lot of countries in different continents in the past centuries and it is still prevalent. In India, as many as 200 million women struck and demonstrated in the largest strike of all time. In countries like China, what can polling really tell us? It was because national Democrats have failed communities like mine. 15. Is there a common ideological core, or is it just a methodology of government? Several authoritarian regimes continue to rely on border controls and the securitization of emigration policy in order to control citizens’ exit —Uzbekistan, for instance, abolished exit visas only in early 2019. The government system in each country is set according to the need of rules in the country. (Ecofin Agency) - The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) recently published the 2019 edition of its democracy index. The return of the repressed should be examined more squarely here, in order to clarify which unsatisfied needs and longings are being mobilized. Thus the question is not whether this kind of authoritarianism exists; it always has. The list given above includes all the past and present Authoritarian countries. It wasn’t for a lack of progressive organizing. When a nation adopts a type of government, the factors taken into consideration include the social and economic conditions of that country. Marx’s 18th Brumaire), about which the Left has developed a rich corpus of theory. Practices are needed—ones that catch on. In the end, slogans and confessions of faith are insufficient in the struggle against the right. … It is developing right across Europe—where it is often marked by a variety of local characteristics—as well as internationally, especially in the US, Latin America, and India. Ambiguous Identities, London: Verso Books, 1988, p. 219. In many countries, strong counter-movements are forming once again, some of them transnational, often significantly radicalized. Information is power. The rights of minorities, women’s rights, and the right to form unions are the first to be attacked by the authoritarian and radical right. [5]. Translated by Sam Langer and Marc Hiatt for Gegensatz Translation Collective.]. The list distinguishes between totalitarian and authoritarian regimes, listing the former and not the latter. [6] Cf. [3] This is accompanied not by a rejection of democracy, but its reactionary adaptation—what Victor Orban calls “illiberal democracy”—“an electoral strategy that creates divisions and mobilizes along lines defined by racism, nationalism, religion, sexism, or the exploitation of the natural world, that echoes the errors of common sense, and neuroticizes the subject”. As compared with democratic countries, authoritarians emphasize looser cooperation, negotiated settlements, and rules that reinforce regime survival. Authoritarian Countries in Asia: Armenia, Bahrain, Cambodia, China, Iran, Laos, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Vietnam; Authoritarian Countries in Europe: Azerbaijan, Belarus, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Turkey; Authoritarian Countries in Africa: Egypt. The attack on unions and workers’ rights, meanwhile, characterizes the authoritarian and radical right across its entire spectrum, cutting across its other differentiations (Poland perhaps the exception). North Korea, an authoritarian regime with a 1.08 score, has remained consistently one of the lowest ranked countries in the index. If there is no political system to regulate the country, it would suffer due to unjust practices of society. The aim is to divide the subalterns, provide restricted possibilities of action for some groups of subalterns and their reactionary self-empowerment. From violent words to violent deeds: The authoritarian and radical right fosters an open hostility towards parliamentarianism and parties, disparages democratic procedure, and contemptuously uses the parliament as a mere stage. In power, they bring the social question back onto the political agenda, but in the form of exclusive solidarity for Germans, Brazilians, Hindus, etc., while at the same time making targeted attacks on unions (collective rights) and social/labour rights. Broadly, an authoritarian regime can be simplistically characterized as extreme centralization of power compounded with the limitation of civil liberties. The demand goes further, however, targeting a democratic, solidary mode of life within the everyday as well—because the extension of the sayable leads immediately to an extension of the domain of action, from expressions of hatred on social media and in everyday life, through to violent acts (“from below”), and lastly open repression (“from above”). We should rather seek to clarify what is specific to each situation and what unites them, so that cautious generalizations can be made. Now is the time to decide, in a period where different possibilities remain open, but are already starting to close. 27–42. Now! We provide a complete list of Authoritarian countries which gives you a measure of how well Authoritarian is/was accepted across the globe. Canadians came out in full force after a Trudeau’s heritage minister suggested that the government should licence media outlets. The authoritarian and radical right, meanwhile, are making the most of a “they don’t represent us” attitude that was in the first instance articulated from the Left. : Balibar’s thesis about the importance of the “intermediate classes”—the class fractions with relative upward or downward mobility that enlist in such a project—ought to be considered with an eye to the new authoritarianism’s class basis. Accumulate, accumulate: Power is used to combat all oppositional and emancipatory tendencies, and always specifically against “collectivism” and “liberalism”, i.e., against collective and individual social rights. Unions and workers’ rights are especially targeted, in order to shift the power relations between capital and labour, as well as communal land rights, the commons, and the public sphere—with the aim of appropriating social resources. The index rates 167 countries by 60 indicators across five broad categories: electoral process and pluralism, the functioning of government, political participation, democratic political culture a Please help. A history written “from below” can elucidate this problem, and point to possibilities for action. Ambiguous Identities, London: Verso Books, 1988. The U.S. has fallen steadily in the global rankings over the past decade, from 17th place in the 2010 index to No. Or they construct an upside-down, right-wing rainbow: against purple, pink, green, and multi-coloured—as resistance against “moralizing re-education” by the generation of ‘68, which had achieved actual positions of power in politics, the education system, the media, universities, and NGOs. Get a complete list for all the Authoritarian countries in the past and current times. … Hegemony or dictatorship: Differentiating aspects were already pointed to in theses 3, 6, and 12. This is a list of totalitarian states.. 5. The latter should in turn be distinguished from the radical right, such as the National Front in France, Geerd Wilders’s Party for Freedom (PVV), or the Alternative for Germany party (AfD)—as well as from the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) or the Lega Nord in Italy, both of which are currently in government. This raises the possibility of authoritarian international law, designed to extend authoritarian rule across time and space. Individualism is often subjugated in favor of the ruling state’s interest, creating the image of oppression. Across the globe, entrenched authoritarians tightened their grip last year – watch China, for instance. • The combined support for left- and right-wing populist parties now equals the support for Social democratic par… ReddIt. Often this is linked with a crude historical revisionism (especially in Eastern Europe, but also in Brazil and Turkey). 2. : The question is not whether or not there is a global authoritarianism. Why now? By. 1. 2 (“Oh Gott”). Email . As of 2017, a scant 38 percent were. As of 2017, a scant 38 percent were. We discuss the authoritarian and radical right a great deal, and this is vital; we do not talk enough about left-wing and emancipatory potentials. What Is Authoritarianism? 2, www.zeitschrift-luxemburg.de/oh-gott-luxemburg-22014-zu-politischer-rel…. Against “the Other”: Here it is always a matter of a specific combination of new forms of classism, racism, and machismo/patriarchy, against the other—the “lazy poor”, the “dangerous classes”, “refugees and foreigners”, “women’s libbers and transgender madness”, etc. LuXemburg, September 2014, vol. Linkedin. 19. As if the chauvinistic right wanted once more to confirm how important an (intersectional) understanding of class, race, and gender is. I’m the chair of the local Democratic Party in a Wisconsin county that Donald Trump won. More astonishing than the defeat of numerous protest movements and new left-wing parties by the new authoritarianism of the rulers is the fact that the dynamics of new mobilizations repeatedly break out in different places. 6. Who are the bearers? Democracy is in crisis around the world, while authoritarianism is on the rise in a growing number of countries. 10. The monsters’ arsenal: Their particular political projects are constituted by invoking specific combinations of the following ideologemes: nationalism, the people (largely in the ethnic rather than the popular sense) and/or the race, the traditional family, religion, traditional forms of identity; but also work, duty, order, and negative freedoms. Existing democratic institutions are hollowed out and increasingly unable to respond to the authoritarian wave. A further point would be the following question: is a specific regime aiming at a hegemonic project, which (through populism) also wagers on the consensus of those it rules, or at the brutal dictatorship of a minority over the majority (including transitional and grey areas)? Since its origin years ago, Authoritarian has been applied as a type of government in many countries. Relatively new authoritarians extended their crackdowns – Hungary, Turkey, the Philippines are a few examples. And when you get into some of the more authoritarian countries and their data policies, they’re very different from the kind of regulatory frameworks that across Europe and across a … Other autocracies prioritize the silencing of citizens’ voice abroad, via the repression of emigrant and diaspora groups. Rather, what are the specific conditions which give it global social importance and historical effectiveness today? You get a complete scenario about the development and current day Authoritarian only by knowing the Authoritarian countries. 18. Mario Candeias, Rechtspopulismus, radikale Rechte, Faschisierung. This would also give clues as to the likely durability of a regime—a successful project of authoritarian hegemony will perhaps be less brutal than a kleptocratic tyranny, but also substantially more long-lasting, and associated with more profound and extensive structural transformations. (March 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... enhance the control capacity and authority of a non-democratic regime In contrast to traditional governance practices in authoritarian countries, IT-backed authoritarianism lowers the necessity to resort to coercion to exert power. 12. The poisoning of Alexey Navalny and the harsh actions of the Belarusian authorities against the oppositionists require a joint reaction of the EU countries. In the face of crisis-type developments, alterations in class structure, and the crisis of representation, numerous political (party-)systems are in upheaval. The 2019 coup against ... -tracing measures designed to prevent the spread of the virus against the need to protect civil liberties in strongly authoritarian countries. Against the background of well-known events, the press speculates on how the EU positions itself in relation to autocratic regimes. [6] Here there is a real danger of transitioning to an openly violent and fascistic culture. View HTML Send article to Kindle. • Voter support for authoritarian populists increased in all six elections in Europe during 2018 and has on an aggregated level increased in ten out of the last eleven elections. The object is complex, heterogeneous, and highly dynamic, and eludes unitary explanation or even definition. The list of examples could be continued; the authoritarian and radical right is multifarious. fossil fuels) threatened by upheavals in the mode of production (digitalization and ecological crisis), and even those bourgeois intellectuals experiencing lack of recognition and the marginalization of their positions (from Professor von Lucke to Gauland), not to mention members of the military and the repressive state apparatus (the police, the intelligence services) whose importance in the life of democratic societies has decreased. Also find out Authoritarian Definition, History of Authoritarian, Characteristics of Authoritarian and a brief Authoritarian summary to get the idea of entire government system. Linke Gegenstrategien, edited by Mario Candeias, Berlin: Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung Materialien 12, 2015, pp. Amid the widespread experience of powerlessness, it operates with the promise of winning back “control” against and “security” from external and internal threats. Balibar, Etienne and Wallerstein, Immanuel, Race, Nation, Class. Reorganization of hegemony: Authoritarianism should not simply be regarded as a reclaiming or securing of power during the moment of crisis, but rather as a struggle over the new composition and the leadership of the ruling power bloc. However, the monsters are downright diverse: there are “strong men” like Trump, Kurz, Duterte, or even Macron—political impresarios who are giving shape to a new authoritarianism while in government. The disappointment over social democracy and/or the post-neoliberal Left, as well as the inefficacy and exhaustion of radical ruptures (the various liberation movements) and failed revolutions (North Africa), has led in many places to a rightward turn by parts of the subalterns, but even more frequently to ademobilization that is asymmetrical in terms of class politics, and to electoral abstention (in those countries where elections are still taking place). Demirović, Alex, Autoritärer Populismus als neoliberale Krisenbewältigungsstrategie, in PROKLA, 2018, no.190, pp. 3Open government is a new policy idea for authoritarian states and is now firmly on the policy agenda of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan). By 2000, just under 50 percent of countries were governed by authoritarian regimes. Discursive Power: The authoritarian and radical right is also managing to effect an overturning of the world of discourse. The contention of this post is that for many of the most effective authoritarian systems, controlling the thoughts of the ruled is secondary to shaping social cleavages in the population. In fact, some regimes—such as Ethiopia—appear to target both exit and voice. Joe Biden’s likely nominee to head the powerful Office of Management and Budget, Neera Tanden, called for cuts to Social Security, saying, “we need to put both entitlements on the table as well as taxes.”, Material of Interest to People on the Left, The Agrarian Crisis in Punjab and the Making of the Anti-Farm Law Protests. President Donald Trump’s national-security adviser says the world is realigning geopolitically between democratic and authoritarian states as more countries … Totalitarianism is an extreme version of authoritarianism. Among the most authoritarian nations in the world are places like North Korea, Syria and Chad. Address the needs: There are myriad starting-points, but in concrete terms: whether it is the housing question, women’s rights, the ecological crisis, or organizing against the right, these campaigns connect mass mobilization with everyday organizing in a local place and the development of political structures and solidarity networks. The popularity of a type of government depends on how widely that government type is adopted or had been adopted across the world. If 2018 and the impending milestones of 2019 are any indication, that’s only the beginning. Twitter. For investigation: who are the carriers, the social groups, and the class fractions of the new authoritarianism (both in the relevant countries and transnationally)? Missed opportunities: An important factor contributing to the rise of the authoritarian and radical right is the limitation of social-democratic projects: a) of a post-neoliberal sort, in other words the redistribution of social wealth in a situation of very limited democratization, but above all with no reconstruction of the bases of production and reproduction (from Venezuela to Brazil), b) of a progressive neoliberal sort, in other words the preservation of (limited) freedoms and progressive gains, without intervention in the meteoric transformation of the economic structure, and without downward redistribution (social democracy, left-liberals, and sometimes Christian democracy in the North). 4. Really? Candeias, Mario, Rechtspopulismus, radikale Rechte, Faschisierung. [3] Alex Demirovic', "Autorita"rer Populismus als neoliberale Krisenbewa"ltigungsstrategie", PROKLA, no. Then there are military governments, as in Thailand, or governments backed by the military, notably Bolsonaro’s Brazil. Authoritarianism primarily differs from totalitarianism in that social and economic institutions exist that are not under governmental control. The new authoritarianism can be read as an effort “to create from above an alliance between groups within the petit bourgeoisie and the working class, without the bourgeoisie having to make any material concessions. The authors however, did find some reason for hope: If 2016 was notable for the populist insurgency against mainstream political parties and politicians in the developed democracies of Europe and North America 305-345. Hall, Stuart, “Race, articulation and societies structured in dominance”, in Sociological theories: race and colonialism, pp. Oh God: The role of political religion has frequently been underestimated: the Evangelicals (USA, Brazil), the Islamic and Hindu fundamentalists (Turkey, India), the Catholic Church (Poland). : We are facing a decisive moment: in view of the intensification of global inequality, the ecological crisis, migratory movements, global authoritarianism, and fascization, the “middle road” of post-ideological openness and left-liberal critique is no longer viable. Ten authoritarian countries that license or regulate their media. 16. How can the rise of the radical right be understood? Researchers say the party’s rhetoric is beginning to resemble that of authoritarian parties, such as AKP in Turkey and Fidesz in Hungary. We should recall that the political upheavals in the wake of the major crisis around 2011 (much earlier in Latin America) were in the first instance a dawn of hope transnationally for the Left. We live in the age of monsters. Like Vostok 2018, Centre 2019 placed an emphasis on airborne and air-mobile units as fast, rapidly deployable shock troops who could capture territory and decide a military campaign before the enemy brought its reserves into the theatre. Surprising improvements in individual countries—including Malaysia, Armenia, Ethiopia, Angola, and Ecuador—show that democracy has enduring appeal as a means of holding leaders accountable and creating the conditions for a better life. At the same time, fake news and conspiracy theories are also put into play; there is a plurality of truths, and hence the democratic requirement to strive for the truth can be dismissed. The Italian Five Star Movement is completely different again. How has this phenomenon been able to become so significant precisely now? A continent wise Authoritarian countries list can be given as follows. Indeed, countries switching to democratic rule experience a 20 percent increase in GDP over a 25-year period, compared to what would have happened had they remained authoritarian states, the researchers report. In the short-term, it seems unlikely that the authoritarian and radical right will be pushed back. Yet for some years now we have to assume that there are growing tendencies towards fascization. 17. [7] Thus, for example, more than six million people took part in the women’s strike in Spain in 2018, and this year too in a campaign against the radical right. Authoritarian Countries in Africa: Egypt. It has a high potential for left organization. In Poland as well, in recent years hundreds of thousands have taken to the streets to defend women’s reproductive rights. Knowing countries with Authoritarian is significantly important to get an idea about presence of Authoritarian countries around the globe. 190, p.34. In general, this process operates via the disparagement of specific groups—but extends to the denial (at first discursive, then later real) of rights. Crisis: Central to the current moment is the coincidence between an organic crisis of a specific, global mode of social production and reproduction (so-called neoliberal globalization) and the emergence, in the interregnum, of forms of authoritarianism as specific ways of working through this crisis and winning back or securing power. The authoritarian and radical right, meanwhile, are making the most of a “they don’t represent us” attitude that was in the first instance articulated from the Left. African countries were among the lowest ranked on a new corruption index by Transparency International. Protesting Farmers ‘Are Being Misled’. EU and authoritarian countries: what to do with them? 14. All North American Authoritarian Countries: Cuba; Authoritarian Countries in … Global action against austerity and authoritarianism: One of the most visible counter-movements to the authoritarian and radical right, against authoritarianism and austerity, is a newly emerging feminist international. Bestimmungsversuche, Erkl,rungsmuster und Gegenstrategien, Berlin: RLS Materialien series, 2018, www.rosalux.de/publikation/id/39174/rechtspopulismus-radikale-rechte-fa…. 13. Just once a year we appeal to you to contribute to make it possible to continue this work. The rise of the Institute for Critical social Analysis at the Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung established... Agenda and Perspectives ”, in recent years hundreds of thousands have taken to the of... End, slogans and confessions of faith are insufficient in the largest strike all. 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