He had heard of land to the west ruled by Moctezuma II, the king of the Aztec empire. Cacao beans for chocolate emerged as an export product as Europeans developed a taste for sweetened chocolate. Native American uprising on the continent in late 1494. The main motivations for colonial expansion were profit through resource extraction[1] and the spread of Catholicism through indigenous conversions. Many of them were veteran professional soldiers who had fought for Spain in other wars, like the reconquest of the Moors (1482-1492) or the "Italian Wars" (1494-1559). A second (and permanent) settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who arrived by sailing down the Paraná River from Asunción, now the capital of Paraguay. Cortés Conquers the Aztecs The first two were in the Alto Perú, present-day Bolivia, at Charcas (present day Sucre, May 25), and La Paz (July 16); and the third in present-day Ecuador at Quito (August 10). The British Empire offered support, wanting to end the Spanish monopoly on trade with its colonies in the Americas. [145], For the conquest of Mexico, a 2019 an eight-episode Mexican TV miniseries Hernán depicts the conquest of Mexico. Horses that escaped Spanish control were captured by indigenous; many indigenous also raided for horses. [34] It was governed by the president of the Audiencia of Bogotá, and comprised an area corresponding mainly to modern-day Colombia and parts of Venezuela. [71] Upon their failure to effectively protect the indigenous and following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire and the Spanish conquest of Peru, more stringent laws to control conquerors' and settlers' exercise of power, especially their maltreatment of the indigenous populations, were promulgated, known as the New Laws (1542). Effective Spanish settlement began in 1493, when Columbus brought livestock, seeds, agricultural equipment. From the Spanish viewpoint, their source of labor and viability of their own settlements was at risk. Until his dying day, Columbus was convinced that he had reached Asia, the Indies. Farriss, Nancy Marguerite. [40] In 1561, Pedro de Ursúa led an expedition of some 370 Spanish (including women and children) into Amazonia to search for El Dorado. 1875. Terraciano, Kevin. MacIas, Rosario Marquez; MacÍas, Rosario Márquez (1995). Queen Isabel put an end to formal slavery, declaring the indigenous to be vassals of the crown, but Spaniards' exploitation continued. Don Martín was sent into exile, while other conspirators were executed. Spalding, Karen. There were two sorts of Spanish conquistadors: horsemen or cavalry and foot soldiers or infantry. [72] Then the first such in 1542; the legal thought behind them was the basis of modern International law. Although implementation was slow and incomplete, it was an assertion of royal power over the clergy and the quality of parish priests improved, since the Ordenanza mandated competitive examination to fill vacant positions. It was translated quickly to English and became the basis for the anti-Spanish writings, collectively known as the Black Legend. [74], The indigenous populations in the Caribbean became the focus of the crown in its roles as sovereigns of the empire and patron of the Catholic Church. 4, p. 204. 87-88. 2, p. 99. [146] The story of Doña Marina, also known as Malinche, was the subject of a Mexican TV miniseries in 2018. Cane sugar imported from the Old World was the high value, low bulk export product that became the bulwark of tropical economies of the Caribbean islands and coastal Tierra Firme (the Spanish Main), as well as Portuguese Brazil. The bishop challenged the Jesuits' continuing to hold Indian parishes and function as priests without the required royal licenses. The Franciscans arrived first in 1525 in a group of twelve, the Twelve Apostles of Mexico. 1 (2012): 26-40. The loss of indigenous population had a direct impact on Spaniards as well, since increasingly they saw those populations as a source of their own wealth, disappearing before their eyes.[50]. Spalding, Karen. For Spaniards, the fierce Chichimecas barred them for exploiting mining resources in northern Mexico. The indigenous peoples of Chile, whom the Spaniards called Araucanians, fiercely resisted Spanish, and south of the Bío-Bío River, the Mapuche dominated the region. [78][79][80][81][82], The exploitation and demographic catastrophe that indigenous peoples experienced from Spanish rule in the Caribbean also occurred [109] In order to control the municipal life, the Crown ordered the appointment of corregidores and alcaldes mayores to exert greater political control and judicial functions in minor districts. Tribute goods in Mexico were most usually lengths of cotton cloth, woven by women, and maize and other foodstuffs produced by men. The region overseen by the archbishop was divided into large units, the diocese, headed by a bishop. He is a former head writer at VIVA Travel Guides. Important indigenous crops that transformed Europe were the potato and maize, which produced abundant crops that led to the expansion of populations in Europe. The conquest of central Mexico sparked further Spanish conquests, following the pattern of conquered and consolidated regions being the launching point for further expeditions. He strongly influenced the formulation of colonial policy under the Catholic Monarchs, and was instrumental in establishing the Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) (1503), which enabled crown control over trade and immigration. The historical record abounds in examples of conquistadors murdering and tormenting native populations, and these horrors are far too numerous to list here. Pedro de Alvarado was a typical example. Spanish explorations of other islands in the Caribbean and what turned out to be the mainland of South and Central America occupied them for over two decades. Lawyers for these cases were funded by a half-real tax, an early example of legal aid for the poor. In the early period for Spaniards, formal ownership of land was less important than control of indigenous labor and receiving tribute. Zumárraga was reprimanded for his actions as exceeding his authority. Who were these men? In the extension of Spanish sovereignty to its overseas territories, authority for expeditions (entradas) of discovery, conquest, and settlement resided in the monarchy. It was the first step in a long campaign that took decades of fighting to subdue the mightiest empire in the Americas. The word conquistador appears to have entered English from Spanish. For the colony's continued existence, a reliable source of labor was needed. Conquistadors had to have some money to purchase the tools of their trade, such as weapons, armor, and horses. Defeated natives were usually enslaved via the encomienda system, which persisted long enough to leave a cultural imprint on Mexico and Peru. Once the Spanish settlement in the Caribbean occurred, Spain and Portugal formalized a division of the world between them in the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. In half a century of brave exploration and brutal conquest, both Europe and America were changed forever. The laws were the first codified set of laws governing the behavior of Spanish settlers in the Americas, particularly with regards to treatment of native Indians in the institution of the encomienda. [141] Christopher Columbus: The Discovery (1992) has Georges Corroface as Columbus with Marlon Brando as Tomás de Torquemada and Tom Selleck as King Ferdinand and Rachel Ward as Queen Isabela. The cities were Spanish and the countryside indigenous. The rural regions remained highly indigenous, with little interface between the large numbers of indigenous and the small numbers of the República de Españoles, which included Blacks and mixed-race castas. [66] The office of captain general involved to be the supreme military chief of the whole territory and he was responsible for recruiting and providing troops, the fortification of the territory, the supply and the shipbuilding. In Peru, the Cerro Rico's ore was processed from the local mercury mine of Huancavelica, while in Mexico mercury was imported from the Almadén mercury mine in Spain. Stanford University Press, 1999. sfn error: no target: CITEREFMecham1966 (, Burkholder, Mark A. c. Christopher Columbus sailed west in order to find Asia. Inquisitional powers were initially vested in bishops, who could root out idolatry and heresy. These began a movement for colonial independence that spread to Spain's other colonies in the Americas. [57] Later ecclesiastics served as interim viceroys, general inspectors (visitadores), and other high posts. Upon the success of the expedition, the spoils of war were divvied up in proportion to the amount a participant initially staked, with the leader receiving the largest share. The New Laws of 1542 were the result, limiting the power of encomenderos, the private holders of grants to indigenous labor previously held in perpetuity. Mounted indigenous warriors were significant foes for Spaniards. [124][125] When the formal institution of the Inquisition was established in 1571, indigenous peoples were excluded from its jurisdiction on the grounds that they were neophytes, new converts, and not capable of understanding religious doctrine. The word conquistador comes from Spanish and means "he who conquers." Ovando fitted out Magellan's voyage of circumnavigation, and became the first President of the Council of the Indies in 1524. [112] However, both charges were also put up for sale freely since the late 16th century. Many institutions established in Castile found expression in The Indies from the early colonial period. Hernán Cortés requested Franciscan and Dominican friars be sent to New Spain immediately after the conquest of Tenochtitlan to begin evangelization. Audiencias were a significant base of power and influence for American-born elites, starting in the late sixteenth century, with nearly a quarter of appointees being born in the Indies by 1687. Residences of the officials and elites were closest to the main square. [77] These elites played an intermediary role between the Spanish rulers and indigenous commoners. “The Incas Under Spanish Colonial Institutions”. The Spaniards believed the Aztec lands were a rich source of gold and silver. By 1550, Spain -- a small kingdom that had not even existed a century earlier -- controlled the better part of two continents and had become the most powerful nation in Europe. In areas of dense, stratified indigenous populations, especially Mesoamerica and the Andean region, Spanish conquerors awarded perpetual private grants of labor and tribute particular indigenous settlements, in encomienda were in a privileged position to accumulate private wealth. Equally important, rich deposits of the valuable metal silver. The first expansion of territory was the conquest of the Muslim Kingdom of Granada on January 1, 1492, the culmination of the Christian Reconquest of the Iberian peninsula, held by the Muslims since 711. There are a number of references to a "title of conquerer". During the conquest of Mexico, Cortes ordered a massacre of Cholulan noblemen. He also had to attract participants to the expedition who staked their own lives and meager fortunes on the expectation of the expedition’s success. [64], As the basic political entity it was the governorate, or province. Conquistadors left their marks culturally as well. The crown was open to limiting the inheritance of encomiendas in perpetuity as a way to extinguish the coalescence of a group of Spaniards impinging on royal power. [83] A similar legal apparatus was set up in Lima.[84]. There is debate about the impact of ranching on the environment in the colonial era, with sheep herding being called out for its negative impact, while other contest that. There was surface gold found in early islands, and holders of encomiendas put the indigenous to work panning for it. [143] A 2010 film, Even the Rain starring Gael García Bernal, is set in modern Cochabamba, Bolivia during the Cochabamba Water War, following a film crew shooting a controversial life of Columbus. [151], The life of seventeenth-century Mexican nun, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, renowned in her lifetime, has been portrayed in a 1990 Argentine film, I, the Worst of All[152] and in a TV miniseries Juana Inés. The native populations of many Caribbean islands, such as Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico, were essentially wiped out by a combination of conquistador abuses and European diseases. Cortés’s seeking indigenous allies was a typical tactic of warfare: divide and conquer. In 1501, Amerigo Vespucci (1454–1512), for whom the Americas … In 1518 Governor Diego Velazquez put Cortesin charge of an expedition that was to explore the Yucatan peninsula. "The 1539 inquisition and trial of Don Carlos of Texcoco in early Mexico.". Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, pp. ... while the Spanish were very clean . Princeton University Press, 1984. Crossbowmen had their crossbows, tricky weapons which they had to keep in good working order. During the early era and under the Habsburgs, the crown established a regional layer of colonial jurisdiction in the institution of Corregimiento, which was between the Audiencia and town councils. The two main areas of Spanish settlement after 1550 were Mexico and Peru, the sites of the Aztec and Inca indigenous civilizations. African slaves were imported to Spanish territories, although in lesser numbers than in English and Portuguese territories. Once on the mainland, where there were dense indigenous populations in urban settlements, the Spanish could build a Spanish settlement on the same site, dating its foundation to when that occurred. e. One prize which could be used to buy off conquistadors was the gift of an encomienda. Held in the Colegio de San Gregorio, in the Spanish city of Valladolid, it was a moral and theological debate about the colonization of the Americas, its justification for the conversion to Catholicism and more specifically about the relations between the European settlers and the natives of the New World. The Spanish recognized indigenous elites as nobles and gave them continuing standing in their communities. The Franciscans took over some former Jesuit missions and continued the expansion of areas incorporated into the empire. [126], Native populations declined significantly during the period of Spanish expansion. "The Bourbon Reforms" in, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFEncyclopedia_of_Latin_American_History_and_Culture1996 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBedini1992 (, Cook, Noble David. ... water route through North America that would allow ships to sail from the Atlantic to the Pacific. They were called just Españoles and Españolas, and later being differentiated by the terms indicating place of birth, peninsular for those born in Spain; criollo/criolla or Americano/Ameriana for those born in the Americas. There were few Spaniards and huge indigenous populations, so utilizing indigenous intermediaries was a practical solution to the incorporation of the indigenous population into the new regime of rule. Benedict. With a hostile indigenous population, no obvious mineral or other exploitable resources, and little strategic value, Chile was a fringe area of colonial Spanish America, hemmed in geographically by the Andes to the east, Pacific Ocean to the west, and indigenous to the south. Another major export product was cochineal, a color-fast red dye made from dried bugs living on cacti. Peru was the last territory in the continent under Spanish rule, which ended on 9 December 1824 at the Battle of Ayacucho (Spanish rule continued until 1898 in Cuba and Puerto Rico). In Mexico, the Hernán Cortés and the men of his expedition founded of the port town of Veracruz in 1519 and constituted themselves as the town councilors, as a means to throw off the authority of the governor of Cuba, who did not authorize an expedition of conquest. Missions were established with royal authority through the Patronato real. The empire was a fragile confederation of city-states. Spaniards also imported citrus trees, establishing orchards of oranges, lemons, and limes, and grapefruit. In the twentieth century, there have been a number of films depicting the life of Christopher Columbus. The conquistadors were those men who took up arms to conquer, subjugate, and convert native populations in the New World. parliament), administrative or ecclesiastical institution, or seigneurial group. [102] Besides court of justice, the Audiencias had functions of government as counterweight the authority of the viceroys, since they could communicate with both the Council of the Indies and the king without the requirement of requesting authorization from the viceroy. Collier, Simon. With the conquests of the Aztec and Inca empires, large numbers of Spaniards emigrated from the Iberian peninsula to seek their fortune or to pursue better economic conditions for themselves. "La catastrophe démographique" (The Demographic Catastrophe) in. It is estimated that during the colonial period (1492–1832), a total of 1.86 million Spaniards settled in the Americas and a further 3.5 million immigrated during the post-colonial era (1850–1950); the estimate is 250,000 in the 16th century, and most during the 18th century as immigration was encouraged by the new Bourbon Dynasty. As new areas were conquered and significant Spanish settlements were established, likewise other audiencias were established. [123] The crown expelled the Jesuits from Spain and The Indies in 1767 during the Bourbon Reforms. He was driven from his home by the thousands, starved, beaten, raped, and murdered with impunity. [105] In areas of previous indigenous empires with settled populations, the crown also melded existing indigenous rule into a Spanish pattern, with the establishment of cabildos and the participation of indigenous elites as officials holding Spanish titles. 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