At the end of the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, Metz’ destiny changed dramatically as the city and its département (Moselle) was annexed by Bismarck to Germany. Published on Dec 13, 2018 Martin (Germany) and Svein (USA) recreate the battle of Metz where the Americans were fighting to gain the bridgehead to advance further towards Germany while the … [3][8] The Prussians offered the honors of war to the defeated French army, but, contrary to usual practice, Bazaine refused the honor. The Battle of Gravelotte, or Gravelotte-St… [10][7], http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/nietzsche/, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Siege_of_Metz_(1870)&oldid=987033422, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from October 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Metz occupied by the Allied German armies, This page was last edited on 4 November 2020, at 13:31. It took place at the city of Metz following the Allied breakout after the Normandy landings. German forces had been retreating since 17 November, and U.S. forces pursued them for the following two days. The French Army of the Rhine under François Bazaine retreated into the Metz fortress after its defeat by the Germans at the Battle of Gravelotte on 18 August 1870. The town of Metz lies on the French German border, and had lain within both countries during the preceding century, and had been heavily fortified by both countries. Visit this website The Germans supplemented their meat rations with tinned food. An army had not directly taken Metz since 1552. With MacMahon wounded on the previous day, General Auguste Ducrot took command of the French troops in the field. During this time, the XX Corps underwent a training program, experimenting with methods of reducing the defenses of the fortress. A description of the battle for Metz from the German perspective can be broken down in to three phases that generally correspond to the three months the battle was fought – September 1944 through November 1944 (although some sub-forts did not surrender until early December). For Sieges of Metz, see, Christer Bergström, "The Ardennes - Hitler's Winter Offensive", p. 28, "General George Patton Interrogates a SS General, 1944", Oral history interview with Frank Niedermayer, an infantryman during the Battle of Metz, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Metz&oldid=992540998, Battles of World War II involving the United States, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 20:27. Against heavy resistance, the 95th captured the forts surrounding Metz and captured the city, 22 November. Although the city itself was captured by U.S. forces and hostilities formally ceased on 22 November, the remaining isolated forts continued to hold out. Armored elements of the United States XX Corps, while on a reconnaissance operation in the direction of the Moselle, made contact with elements from the 17th SS Panzergrenadier Division on 6 September 1944. The attack on the city by the U.S. The Virtual Museum of the 95th Infantry Division - The Iron Men of Metz // Le Musée Virtuel de la 95th Infantry Division - Les Hommes de Fer de Metz It withholds no criticisms or praise when warranted - including General Patton. Metz 1870 . During the 1870–71 Franco-Prussian War the French troops retreated into Metz after an indecisive battle. The Siege of Metz lasting from 19 August – 27 October 1870 was fought during the Franco-Prussian War and ended in a decisive Allied German victory. One notable figure present on the Prussian side was the prominent philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, who served as a medical attendant. [2] The city was captured by U.S. forces and hostilities formally ceased on 22 November; the last of the forts defending Metz surrendered on 13 December. Attempted French breakouts ended in defeat at the battles of Noisseville on 31 August – 1 September and Bellevue on 7 October. This new but remarkable architectural example was commissioned to an architect from Berlin, Kröger, who erected many imposing buildings in the Rhenish … Recognizing the strategic and political importance of the city, Aeizure by US forces was strongly contested by elements of the German First Army. Metz is located between the rivers Moselle and Seille. The city was captured by U.S. forces and hostilities formally ceased on 22 November; the last of the forts defending Metz surrendered on 13 December. [4], However, after the Allied "break out" from the lodgement established by the Normandy landings, the U.S. Third Army raced 400 miles across France, with the German forces retreating in disorder. It had been captured after a 54-day … Metz was surrounded by forts built by the Germans between 1870 and 1919, then allowed to decay by the French, who possessed the Lorraine region until it was retaken by Germany in 1940. [4][7], Direct assault was forbidden against the holdout forts in order to preserve artillery ammunition for the XX Corps' advance to the Sarre River and the isolated forts subsequently surrendered one by one following the surrender of Fort Verdun on 26 November. A World War II veteran was awarded a Bronze Star 76 years after surviving a harrowing battle. This pause by Third Army gave the Germans time to reorganize and fortify Metz, in an attempt to contain the Allied advance.[4]. A very solid, detached, and objective account of the Battle of Metz with detailed accounts of battalions, companies, and … The Battle of Metz was a three-month battle fought between the United States Army and the German Army during World War II. The men of US 3rd Army deal with the mud of Lorraine, October 1944. The first U.S. attack was launched by the 95th Infantry Division, in which they attempted to capture a bridgehead to the north of Metz. The Germans besieged the city, and 54 days later the French were forced to capitulate. The Army of Châlons was trapped and destroyed at the Battle of Sedan. It was a campaign filled with personal and professional frustration for the general, and even the fall of Metz in early December, with its paltry haul of just 6,000 prisoners, did nothing to lighten the mood. The German 26th Brigade was stationed as the Metz garrison, with General von Kummer as commandant. The Army of Châlons marched north-east towards the Belgian border to avoid the Prussians before striking south to link up with Bazaine. During World War II it was occupied by the Germans and in 1944 was liberated only after a long battle. [6] U.S. forces entered Metz on 18 November, and on 21 November Kittel was wounded and subsequently captured. Metz as a preliminary move to enhance the continued attack eastward of the US Third Army. [4] Hitler ordered his commanders to hold the Allies "as far west as possible," to give time for the strengthening of the West Wall, which had been depleted to build up the Atlantic Wall. The battlefield extends from the woods that border the Moselle above Metz to Roncourt, near the river Orne. Metz was to be the linchpin in the Germans’ defensive strategy. After being held at the Battle of Gravelotte, Marshal Bazaine retreated into the defenses of Metz. The November Battle for Metz (Concluded) The Enemy Situation in the Metz Area 1. Patton’s Bloody Battle at Fortress Metz In the autumn of 1944, Third Army’s eastward dash ran into well-entrenched Germans and miserable weather at Europe’s strongest fortress. Other villages which played an important part in the battle of Gravelotte were Saint Privat, Amanweiler or Amanvillers and Sainte-Marie-aux-Chênes, all lying to the north of Gravelotte. Nietzsche contracted both diphtheria and dysentery during the siege, worsening his already poor state of health. Bazaine was sent as a captive to Kassel. wikipedia Army of the Rhine (1870) 100% (1/1) Army of the RhineArmy of the Rhin (1870)Army of the Rhin As Third Army supply lines became stretched, material (especially gasoline) became scarce, and Supreme Commander General Dwight D. Eisenhower called a halt to the Third Army advance so that supplies could be stockpiled for Operation Market Garden, an attempt to break into the vital (and heavily industrialized) German Ruhr Valley in the north. Thank you Sir for your service ! [2][3], Napoleon III and Marshal Patrice de MacMahon formed the new French Army of Châlons, to march on to Metz to rescue Bazaine. Strong German resistance resulted in heavy casualties for both sides. [10], This article is about the 1944 battle. Third Army during the Metz Campaign of the Fall of 1944. But the siege of Metz remains an instructive example of a gifted commander losing sight of his army's strengths as a result of external pressures having little to do with the enemy. By the end of August 1944, German forces in Lorraine had managed to reestablish a defensive line around Metz and Nancy. Because the entire Army of the Rhine was stuck in the fortress, there were only enough provisions for 41 days and oats for 25 days. The last of the forts at Metz to surrender was Fort Jeanne d'Arc, which capitulated to the U.S. III Corps on 13 December. At that time, the Wehrmacht did not consider it an important location and the city's defenses were reduced with many guns and equipment removed, although the fortifications were still heavily defended and well armed. It took place at the city of Metz following the Allied breakout after the Normandy landings. The siege is commemorated by the "Siegesmarsch von Metz" which uses parts of the "Die Wacht am Rhein". The Battle of Metz (27 September-13 December 1944) was a major battle of the Liberation of France, occurring as the US Third Army under General George S. Patton liberated the Lorraine region of eastern France. Unable to silence the fortress guns sufficiently to conduct siege operations, the besiegers opted to starve out the trapped French army. [4] Several small scale attacks were made by the U.S. forces after this encounter. French food supplies ran out on 20 October and Bazaine surrendered the fortress and the entire Army of the Rhine, some 193,000 men, into German hands on 27 October. This attack was repelled by the German forces, as was another attack on the city that followed. On 14 November Generalleutnant Heinrich Kittel was appointed as the new commander of the German forces. The Division pushed toward the Saar, 25 November, and entered Germany on the 28th. On September 27, 1944, as part of the nascent Lorraine Campaign, Patton’s Third Army launched a new attack to capture the fortified city of Metz. The Battle of Metz was a battle fought during World War II at the city of Metz, France, from late September 1944 through mid-December between the U.S. Third Army commanded by Lieutenant General George Patton and the German Army commanded by General Otto von Knobelsdorff. The Germans immediately sent a train of food and live cattle to the city they had just conquered. The defense of Metz was undertaken by the German First Army, commanded by General Otto von Knobelsdorff. [4], The French calculated they had enough food for 70,000 civilians for three and a half months and five months worth of provisions for a regular garrison. Strong German resistance resulted in heavy casualties for both sides. [1] Strong German resistance resulted in heavy casualties for both sides. The Germans allowed the French officers to keep their swords and remain in Metz, which was largely unharmed by the siege. With this army and the Prussian Third Army, Moltke marched northward and caught up with the French at Beaumont on 30 August. [10], Prince Friedrich Karl and the Prussian Second Army were now free to move against the French force in the Loire River area. The French Army of Châlons was sent to relieve the Army of the Rhine but was itself encircled and annihilated by the German armies at the Battle of Sedan on 1–2 September. The fighting in 1914 left Verdun in a salient or … Generaloberst Johannes Blaskowitz, C.O of Armeegruppe G, reviewed Patton's decision to launch a headlong attack straight into the fortifications of Metz by saying: "A direct attack on Metz was unnecessary....in contrast a swerve northward in the direction of Luxemburg and Bitburg would have met with greater success and caused our 1st Army's right flank collapsed followed by the breakdown of our 7th Army.". The level of casualties for both sides are unknown but high.[9]. On 18 September, U.S. reconnaissance units encountered Wehrmacht Panzergrenadiers again. Each side lost about 5,000 men killed and wounded in total in these two breakout attempts. [1], On 20 October, the food provisions of the fortress ran out and the French Army of the Rhine subsisted afterward on the flesh of 20,000 horses, which were consumed at a rate of 1,000 per day. 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